From sequences of opsin genes they have deduced a plausible way for trichromatic vision in the howler monkey to have evolved from dichromatic vision by neo-Darwinian gene duplication followed by nucleotide substitutions in one copy.
Popper, 1972 (27) Artificial selection never produces wholly new characteristics.
Bender and Nancy.
2000, November 23: Monad to Man, by Michael Ruse, about evolutionary progress.
Soyer and Sebastian Bonhoeffer, "Evolution of complexity in signaling pathways" abstract,.1073/pnas., Proc.The great pioneer of that field was Gregor Mendel, whose work was contemporary with Darwin's.TEs, and in particular ERVs, have contributed hundreds of thousands of novel regulatory elements to the primate lineage.Soon afterwards the first mammalian homeoboxes were located." (19).By contrast, the entire Cambrian Explosion of about 570 million years ago took only five to nine million years (11).Is this the example that has been lacking of the creation of a new gene?Petrov., "Evolution of the ribosome at atomic resolution" abstract, doi:10.1073/pnas., Proc.Koonin's book, The Logic of Chance Joana Projecto-Garcia, Chandrasekhar Natarajan., "Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds" abstract, doi:10.1073/pnas., p v 110, Proc.Kirschner and John.Have revealed that a hundred or more genes are devoted to coat variation, each gene specifying one kind of coat molecule.Now the theory of evolution incorporates Mendel's genetics into Darwin's framework; the combined theory was called "neo-Darwinism." (The distinction from "Darwinism" is often overlooked nowadays.).

Gehring, "Induction of Ectopic Eyes by Targeted Expression of the eyeless Gene in Drosophila" abstract, p v 267, Science,.
KS Dulai, M von Dornum, JD Mollon and DM Hunt, "The evolution of trichromatic color vision by opsin gene duplication in New World and Old World primates p 629-638 v 9 n 7, Genome Research, July 1999.
"The big surprise concerning homeoboxes came in 1984 with the discovery of a homeobox, very similar to the Drosophila ones in a vertebrate, the toad Xenopus laevis.Evolutionary Scrap-heap Challenge., a Reply forwarded by Stan Franklin, : Ultraconserved elements.USA, online Mario Ventura., "Gorilla genome structural variation reveals evolutionary parallelisms with chimpanzee" abstract, doi:10.1101/gr.124461.111, p v21, Genome Research, Oct 2011.A coordinating gene that works the same way in very different animals is not confined to the eye.The authors are aware of this problem and postulate other roles for genetic intermediates between the two genes.The rat genome has been sequenced.The birth of a new gene unique to apes and humans.The number of changed essential nucleotides in new genes that supposedly arose this way is still in the dozens at least, whereas the number of possible genes that would differ from a given average-size gene by only half-a-dozen promo apple macbook pro 13 essential nucleotides is enormous, on the order.This timing coincides with the independently estimated time when the Antarctic Ocean was frozen.